Rapid microbial identification and colistin resistance detection via MALDI-TOF MS using a novel on-target extraction of membrane lipids

Sorensen M, Chandler CE, Gardner F, et al. Scientific Reports 2020 Dec.

Rapid infection diagnosis is critical to improving patient treatment and outcome. Recent studies have shown microbial lipids to be sensitive and selective biomarkers for identifying bacterial and fungal species and antimicrobial resistance. Practical procedures for microbial lipid biomarker analysis will therefore improve patient outcomes and antimicrobial stewardship. However, current lipid extraction methods require significant hands-on time and are thus not suited for direct adoption as a clinical assay for microbial identification. Here, we have developed a method for lipid extraction directly on the surface of stainless-steel matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) plates, termed fast lipid analysis technique or FLAT, which facilitates the identification of bacterial and fungal species using a sub-60-minute workflow. Additionally, our method detects lipid A modifications in Gram-negative bacteria that are associated with antimicrobial resistance, including to colistin.
Continue readingRapid microbial identification and colistin resistance detection via MALDI-TOF MS using a novel on-target extraction of membrane lipids

Streamlined Analysis of Cardiolipins in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Samples Using a Norharmane Matrix by MALDI-MSI

Yang H, Jackson SN, Woods AS, et al. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2020 Oct 5.

Cardiolipins (CLs) are an important, regulated lipid class both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, yet they remain largely unexplored by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) in tissues. To date, no in-depth optimization studies of label-free visualization of CLs in complex biological samples have been reported. Here we report a streamlined modification to our previously reported MALDI-MSI method for detection of endogenous CLs in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells based on preparation with norharmane (NRM) matrix. Notably, the use of NRM matrix permitted sensitive detection (4.7 pg/mm2) of spotted CL synthetic standards. By contrast, four other MALDI matrices commonly used for lipid analysis failed to generate CL ions. Using this NRM-based method, endogenous CLs were detected from two types of complex biological samples: dried bacterial arrays and mouse tissue sections. In both cases, using NRM resulted in a better signal/noise for CL ions than the other matrices. Furthermore, inclusion of a washing step improved CL detection from tissue and this combined tissue preparation method (washing and NRM matrix) was used to profile normal mouse lung. Mouse lung yielded 26 unique CLs that were mapped and identified. Consistent with previous findings, CLs containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found in abundance in the airway and vascular features of the lung. This work represents a comprehensive investigation of detection conditions for CL using MALDI-MSI in complex biological samples that resulted in a streamlined method that enables future studies of the biological role(s) of CL in tissue. … Continue readingStreamlined Analysis of Cardiolipins in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Samples Using a Norharmane Matrix by MALDI-MSI

Pathogen Identification Direct From Polymicrobial Specimens Using Membrane Glycolipids

Fondrie WE, Liang T, Oyler BL, et al. Scientific Reports 2018 Oct.

With the increased prevalence of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, the use of colistin and other last-line antimicrobials is being revisited clinically. As a result, there has been an emergence of colistin-resistant bacterial species, including Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The rapid identification of such pathogens is vitally important for the effective treatment of patients. We previously demonstrated that mass spectrometry of bacterial glycolipids has the capacity to identify and detect colistin resistance in a variety of bacterial species. In this study, we present a machine learning paradigm that is capable of identifying A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae and their colistin-resistant forms using a manually curated dataset of lipid mass spectra from 48 additional Gram-positive and -negative organisms. We demonstrate that these classifiers detect A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae in isolate and polymicrobial specimens, establishing a framework to translate glycolipid mass spectra into pathogen identifications. … Continue readingPathogen Identification Direct From Polymicrobial Specimens Using Membrane Glycolipids

Identification of the ESKAPE pathogens by mass spectrometric analysis of microbial membrane glycolipids

Leung LM, Fondrie WE, Doi Y, et al. Sci Rep. 2017 Jul

Rapid diagnostics that enable identification of infectious agents improve patient outcomes, antimicrobial stewardship, and length of hospital stay. Current methods for pathogen detection in the clinical laboratory include biological culture, nucleic acid amplification, ribosomal protein characterization, and genome sequencing. Pathogen identification from single colonies by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of high abundance proteins is gaining popularity in clinical laboratories. Here, we present a novel and complementary approach that utilizes essential microbial glycolipids as chemical fingerprints for identification of individual bacterial species. Gram-positive and negative bacterial glycolipids were extracted using a single optimized protocol. Extracts of the clinically significant ESKAPE pathogens: Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp. were analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS in negative ion mode to obtain glycolipid mass spectra. A library of glycolipid mass spectra from 50 microbial entries was developed that allowed bacterial speciation of the ESKAPE pathogens, as well as identification of pathogens directly from blood bottles without culture on solid medium and determination of antimicrobial peptide resistance. These results demonstrate that bacterial glycolipid mass spectra represent chemical barcodes that identify pathogens, potentially providing a useful alternative to existing diagnostics.
Continue readingIdentification of the ESKAPE pathogens by mass spectrometric analysis of microbial membrane glycolipids